Nasal Vaccination Against SARS-CoV-2: Synergistic or Alternative to Intramuscular Vaccines?

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Mattia Tiboni, Luca Casettari, Lisbeth Illum It is striking that all marketed SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are developed for intramuscular administration designed to produce humoral and cell mediated immune responses, preventing viremia and the COVID-19 syndrome. They have a high degree of efficacy in humans (70–95%) depending on the type of vaccine. However, little protection is provided […]