Hamideh Razavi, Sajad Janfaza
A sensitive monitoring of biological analytes, such as biomolecules (protein, lipid, DNA and RNA), and biological cells (blood cell, virus and bacteria), is essential to assess and avoid risks for human health. Nanobiosensors, analytical devices that combine a biologically sensitive element with a nanostructured transducer, are being widely used for molecular detection of biomarkers associated with diagnosis of disease and detection of infectious organisms. Nanobiosensors show certain advantages over laboratory and many field methods due to their inherent specificity, simplicity and quick response. In this review, recent progress in the development of nanobiosensors in medicine is illuminated. In addition, this article reviews different kinds of bio-receptors and transducers employed in nanobiosensors. In the last section, overview of the development and application of various nanomaterials and nanostructures in biosensing has been provided. Considering all of these aspects, it can be stated that nanobiosensors offer the possibility of diagnostic tools with increased sensitivity, specificity, and reliability for medical applications.