Abdollah Jafarzadeh, Sara Jafarzadeh and Maryam Nemati
In addition to the respiratory system, severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) strikes other systems, including the digestive, circulatory, urogenital, and even the central nervous system, as its receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is expressed in various organs, such as lungs, intestine, heart, esophagus, kidneys, bladder, testis, liver, and brain. Different mechanisms, in particular, massive virus replication, extensive apoptosis and necrosis of the lung-related epithelial and endothelial cells, vascular leakage, hyper-inflammatory responses, overproduction of pro-inflammatory mediators, cytokine storm, oxidative stress, downregulation of ACE2, and impairment of the renin- angiotensin system contribute to the COVID-19 pathogenesis. Currently, COVID-19 is a global pandemic with no specific anti-viral treatment. The favorable capabilities of the ginger were indicated in patients suffering from osteoarthritis, neurodegenerative disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, type 2 diabetes, respiratory distress, liver diseases and primary dysmenorrheal. Ginger or its compounds exhibited strong anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative influences in numerous animal models. This review provides evidence regarding the potential effects of ginger against SARS-CoV-2 infection and highlights its antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and immunomodulatory impacts in an attempt to consider this plant as an alternative therapeutic agent for COVID-19 treatment.