Abha Sharma et al.
It is now well-confirmed that hydrophilic surfaces including those within the cell generate structural changes in water. This interfacial water is ordered and acquires features different from the bulk. Amongst those features is the exclusion of colloidal and molecular solutes from extensive regions next to the hydrophilic surface, thereby earning it the label of “exclusion zone” (EZ) water. The transition of ordered EZ water to bulk serves as an important trigger of many cellular physiological functions, and in turn cellular health. We tested physiological doses of half a dozen agents generally identified to restore or build health on the extent to which they build EZs. All agents known to enhance biological function resulted in EZ expansion. On the other hand, the weed killer, glyphosate, considerably diminished EZ size. While the expansion effect of the health-promoting agents was observed over a wide range of concentrations, excessive doses ultimately reduced EZ size. We hypothesize that EZ buildup may be a mechanistic feature underlying many health-promoting agents, while agents that impair health may act by diminishing the amount of EZ water.
… Water is the raw material used for the buildup of EZ honeycomb layers from the hydrophilic surface of Nafion.5 Nafion contains oxygen atoms in its molecular structure and forms a template for the EZ water honeycomb. Each honeycomb layer builds by locking OH-units into the lattice, one at a time.5 While the negatively charged lattice motivates positively charged protons to penetrate back into the EZ, these protons may otherwise latch onto water molecules to form hydronium ions. Ordinarily, hydronium ions cannot enter the lattice; thus, whatever EZ is formed continues to be well-stabilized. Health-promoting agents evidently impact the dynamics of these processes in a way that creates additional EZ layers.
… In this context, a noteworthy feature is the expansion of EZ over large ranges of concentration—typically, several hundred or even thousand times. This implies a beneficial effect over a sizeable dose range. On the other hand, we found that excessive doses consistently diminish EZ size, a feature that may explain the negative impact of overdosing.