Influenza Virus and SARS-CoV-2: Pathogenesis and Host Responses in the Respiratory Tract

Tim Flerlage et al.

Influenza virus and SARS-CoV-2: pathogenesis and host responses in the respiratory tract

Influenza viruses cause annual epidemics and occasional pandemics of respiratory tract infections that produce a wide spectrum of clinical disease severity in humans. The novel betacoronavirus severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in December 2019 and has since caused a pandemic. Both viral and host factors determine the extent and severity of virus-induced lung damage. The host’s response to viral infection is necessary for viral clearance but may be deleterious and contribute to severe disease phenotypes. Similarly, tissue repair mechanisms are required for recovery from infection across the spectrum of disease severity; however, dysregulated repair responses may lead to chronic lung dysfunction. Understanding of the mechanisms of immunopathology and tissue repair following viral lower respiratory tract infection may broaden treatment options. In this Review, we discuss the pathogenesis, the contribution of the host response to severe clinical phenotypes and highlight early and late epithelial repair mechanisms following influenza virus infection, each of which has been well characterized. Although we are still learning about SARS-CoV-2 and its disease manifestations in humans, throughout the Review we discuss what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in the context of this broad knowledge of influenza virus, highlighting the similarities and differences between the respiratory viruses.

Latest articles

Rebecca Park Totilo Essential Oils for radiation sickness, biological warfare, chemical warfare...
Rebecca Park Totilo Living Grand Convention that inflammation is a signal that...
Maharishi Ayurveda Products International, Inc. Radiation—energy that travels through the atmosphere as...
Alan V. Schmukler There are numerous substances which are rumored to offer...
World Health Organization This document describes protocols and practices for ensuring the...

Thank you!

Thank you for your membership application. As soon as your payment has been received your membership will be activated and you will be informed via email.

Thank you.

Thank you!

The form has been submitted successfully!