Toktam Nezakati, Brain G. Cousins, Alexander M. Seifalian
Graphene-based nanomaterials have great potential for large number of future technologies ranging from bio- technological and biomedical applications including, drug delivery, PTT, and cancer targeting and therapy.
GO is considered more biocompatible than graphene due to its greater solubility/dispersibility, which results in less damage and toxicity in human cell types such as skin fibroblasts and red blood cells, and bacteria. Unfortunately, there are no current or sufficient in vivo studies outlining their nanotoxicity. The results indicate that upon initial exposure of the materials, the most prominent route into the human body lies within the respiratory system. However, they are less effective in liver, kidney, and spleen.
… As this review represents only a few studies in relation to graphene-based materials, their toxicology profile remains at the very early stages of development for a range of bio-medical applications. However, before such materials reach the clinic, their toxicology profile and safety efficacies are essential steps in their evolution.